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职业交易者遵循的10条规则

2022年08月03日 09:34 来源: 中国政府采购报 【 打印 】

美国在国内国际上实施强迫劳动的事实真相

◆美国公民自由联盟ACLU(American Civil Liberties Union)报告显示,全美至少有30个州将服刑犯人列为灾难和紧急事件的应急劳动力,至少14个州雇用犯人从事森林消防工作。大多数监狱劳工称自己从未接受过正式岗位培训,却常常要在不符合安全操作标准和缺乏防护设备的情况下进行危险作业,经常造成人员伤亡,而对这些伤亡,各监狱无明确记录。美国《大西洋月刊》早在2015年就评论称:“这些外包的犯人比奴隶还要便宜,毕竟企业无需操心他们的身体健康。”

职业交易者遵循的10条规则

2022年08月03日 09:34 来源: 中国政府采购报 【 打印 】

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境外公募基金行业监管处罚案例研究之:从业人员个人证券投资违规

(1)制定关于雇员买卖证券的道德准则(codes of ethics)和防止雇员滥用非公开信息的书面程序。值得注意的是,SEC要求投资公司董事会除批准公司内部的道德准则外,还要批准其投资顾问、主承销商的道德准则,且仅在确认该等道德准则可以有效防范内部人[4]从事证券投资违法行为的前提下,才可以批准该等道德准则。此外,美国SEC还要求投资公司及其投资顾问、主承销商必须至少每年向投资公司董事会提交一次报告,说明道德准则的执行运作情况。

英国相关法律法规规定,基金从业人员买卖证券时必须履行信赖义务。英国FCA在其最近发布的《获核准之基金从业人员基本义务准则》(Statements of principle and Code of practice for Approved persons,ApER)中将基金从业人员的信赖义务细化七项准则,其中包括获核准之从业人员应遵循忠实诚信原则执行职务,在从事个人证券交易时,应该避免利益冲突交易的准则。此外,FSA还要求基金管理公司发生以下事件时,必须立即通知FSA:(1)知悉雇员对客户有诈欺行为;(2)怀疑雇员执业中或者个人证券交易中可能涉及严重违法行为;(3)知悉任何人(无论是否为雇员)可能犯下或意欲进行诈欺行为[6]。

(二)CN Capital Management Limited违规案

(1)CN Capital Management Limited(以下简称“CN Capital”)[7]没有任何职员曾以书面形式向CN Capital披露他们所持有的私人投资项目。

(2)陈义理及吴永亮,作为CN Capital的两位负责人,在未取得CN Capital合规主任的书面预先批准下,共计进行了3,188项个人交易,其中619项交易的持有期限少于30日,996项个人交易与CN Capital所管理的基金于同日进行的交易涉及相同股票。

尽管没有任何证据显示任何客户因陈义理及吴永亮的私人交易而受到影响,SFC仍对CN Capital和两名负责人进行了处罚。其中,CN Capital因没有就职员个人证券投资设立完善的内部监控措施和流程,被SFC谴责并罚款港币1,000,000元;陈义理及吴永亮因违反《基金经理操守准则》下有关雇员帐户交易的规定,违反了从事基金管理业务的人士在为本身进行交易时,必须优先处理客户的买卖盘,及避免出现利益冲突的基本原则,被SFC谴责,并各自被罚款港币100,000元。

[3](j) It shall be unlawful for any affiliated person of or principal underwriter for a registered investment company or any affiliated person of an investment adviser of or principal underwriter for a registered 职业交易者遵循的10条规则 investment company, to engage in any act, practice, or course of business in connection with the purchase or sale, directly or indirectly, by such person of any security held or to be acquired by such registered investment company in contravention of such rules and regulations as the Commission may adopt to define, and prescribe means reasonably necessary to prevent, 职业交易者遵循的10条规则 such acts, practices, or courses of business as are fraudulent, deceptive or manipulative. Such rules and regulations may include requirements for the adoption of codes of ethics by registered investment companies and investment advisers of, and principal underwriters for, such investment companies establishing such standards as are reasonably necessary to prevent such acts, practices, or courses of business.

[4]1940 Act Rule 17j-1(a)(1) defines “access person” as follows:

i Any Advisory Person of a Fund or of a Fund’s investment adviser. If an investment adviser’s primary business is advising Funds or other advisory clients, all of the investment adviser’s directors, officers, and general partners are presumed to be Access Persons of any Fund advised by the investment adviser. All of a Fund’s directors, officers, and general partners are presumed to be Access Persons of the Fund.

ii Any director, officer or general partner of a principal 职业交易者遵循的10条规则 underwriter who, in the ordinary course of business, makes, participates in or obtains information regarding, the purchase or sale of Covered Securities by the Fund for which the principal underwriter acts, or whose functions or duties in the ordinary course of business relate to the making of any recommendation to the fund regarding the purchase or sale of Covered Securities.